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Peak compressive forces for both XL-PPF formulations were measured through 6 weeks of in vitro degradation (see Fig buy phenergan 25 mg low price. Initial compressive strengths for XL-PPF with 0% allograft bone (3 phenergan 25 mg line. In addition, both formulations retained approximately 50% of their initial mechanical strength following 3 weeks of in vitro degradation. Although both formulations had similar compressive strengths through 3 weeks of in vitro degradation, the XL-PPF–based extender mixed with 25% bone had a significantly higher strength (1. Thus, mixing the XL-PPF–based graft extender with 25% bone graft did not compro- mise the mechanical integrity of the implant. In Vivo Analysis of Autograft Extension An in vivo study conducted by the authors assessed new bone growth within an XL-PPF–based implant at varying autograft/extender ratios. The osteoconductive effect of the PPF-based bone A Polymer Bone Graft Extender 165 Figure 3 In vitro temporal mechanical strengths of XL-PPF extenders mixed with either 0 or 25% allograft human freeze-dried bone. Extender implants mixed with autograft bone at ratios of 3:1 and 1:3 (autograft/extender) were implanted within noncritical defects created in rat tibiae. New bone growth within the autograft/extender implants were compared to positive (100% autograft) and negative (100% extender) controls. Healing of the defect was assessed qualitatively by histology at 6 weeks postimplantation. New bone growth and osteoconduction within the implant was quantified by histomorphometry. Histomorphometric evaluation of new bone formation was done by acquiring images of serial longitudinal sections of the specimen using a CCD video camera system (TM-745, PUL- NiX, Sunnyvale, CA) that was mounted on a Zeiss microscope. The approximate absolute volume of the newly formed bone was presented as an average (mean standard deviation) of these volume measures for each bone specimen. This parameter was given as a percentage rate and is presented as the average of all sections of eight grafted animals per graft type.

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Damage or insult to the bone through mechanical trauma of surgery Osseointegration Principles in Orthopedics 227 3 purchase 25mg phenergan amex. Imposition of abnormal or unphysiological conditions on the bone generic phenergan 25mg, such as fluid pressures or motion against implant components 4. Alteration to the mechanical signals encouraging bone densification; strain reductions or ‘‘stress-shielding’’ of replaced or adjacent bone A. Basic Science The first factor investigated in the orthopedic context was the importance of implant form, or macrotexture, on fixation stability in bone [107]. Titanium screws were shown to achieve direct bone apposition after 4 to 14 months in canine and human tibiae, whereas cylinders and T plates provoked a fibrous tissue interface. Biocompatibility of the material was investigated in a series of studies comparing commer- cially pure titanium (c. Ti) with existing orthopedic implant materials such as stainless steel, vitallium (Cobalt–chromium alloy) and titanium–6 aluminium–4 vanadium alloy [108]. Ti components achieved higher interfacial shear strengths and greater bone–implant contact ratios than the orthopedic alloys. Ti and bone was also characterized for cortical and cancellous bone in another series of detailed studies [109]. That close implant–bone apposition is important for the development of secure osseointe- gration was demonstrated in rabbit tibiae [110] and subsequently supported indirectly by findings in human acetabular implants [111–113]. Although closeness of fit has not been so carefully studied, implant stability or implant/bone movement has been shown to play a significant role in the development or prevention of osseointegration [114–117]. The effect of implant surface texture on bone incorporation has also been studied in detail [118–123] and been further demonstrated in the orthopedic environment [124–127].

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